References are essays, articles, descriptions, chronologies charts, that may contribute to an understanding of computer history or the history of computing, in general.
Personal homepage that offers an insight into the history of hardware, the Internet and the Windows operating system.
The author takes the user through a short tour of computer history including subjects such as advances in the 50's and 60's. Also includes photos of Charles Babbage and Herman Hollerith.
Relating to the invention of the world's first automatic totalisator in 1913. A multi user system in 1913 with 30 terminals.
Uses a timeline to take the user through the various milestones of computer technology. Subjects include the abacus, vacuum tubes, transistors and microprocessors. First published by Thinkquest and now archived.
50th Anniversary Celebrations of the Manchester Baby computer and the Manchester Mark 1 and Ferranti Mark 1.
Select events from a timeline spanning the 1970's to the 1990's. Subjects include the Commodore PET, the Amiga, RISC architectures and virtual reality.
A collection of web resources sorted alphabetically. Topics include the Abacus, Eniac, Charles Babbage and Bill Gates.
A brief look at the history from an ex-IBM technician. Includes the first IBM RAMAC disk drive.
A searchable index for classical computer magazines and books, mainly from end of the seventies and beginning of the eighties. Provides a table of contents for each book.
A collection of information and illustrations on the subjects of computers, calculators and games. Topics include the IBM 5100 portable computer and the Commodore KIM-1 and VIC 20 microcomputers.
Site about NCR computers of the 20th Century dedicated to those who programmed, maintained and operated them.
This site contains a downloadble archive of early issues of the microcomputer magazine New Zealand Bits & Bytes, from the early eighties
An archive aimed at preserving important pieces of computing and general history. Source code and programs with an eye towards emulators and rare/endangered code. Also specifications and photos of old equipment and several e-book collections.
Hosts Computer Evolution File, tries to be a complete graphical representation of the evolution of computers for the period 1934 to 1950. License: Creative Commons, Attribution, Share Alike.
An overview of the developments that allowed the modern day computer to arise from first principles, including looking at Stonehenge, ENIAC, Pascaline, and Turing machines.
Links to on-line resources concerning the history of computing around the world, including pioneers of the field such as Alan Turing.
Essay on the history of computers from the abacus, logarithm, ENIAC, and massively parallel computers. Written by computer pioneer Philip Emeagwali.
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