This category holds web pages and sites that compare two or more programming languages, on one or more variable, via text, feature lists, tables, code samples, equations, pictures, jokes, or any other means, sensible or nonsensical. To qualify for this page, submissions must be about, and of interest to, those interested in, more than one language. On this page, languages are arranged in three groups and levels: 1) Top group: issues spanning multiple unrelated languages. 2) Middle group: components, frameworks. 3) Bottom group: specific languages, with their own category.
Shows source code implementation for the same simple program across over 250 different programming languages.
Also compares C#, Java, C++. By Ben Albahari.
Some think Java is like C++. Usual C++ idioms do not apply to Java as it is not a C++ superset or subset; Java is a derivation with many modifications, extensions. Both language syntax are alike, but semantics and philosophy are very different. Java is nearer Ada 95 than C++, except in syntax.
Compares 4 programming languages (Ada 95, C, C++, Java) with the needs of "Steelman", original 1978 requirements document for Ada language. Big detailed table.
By Lutz Prechelt. Neutral, quantitative analysis of 7 languages in title, for 7 variables, via 80 implementations of the same requirement set. PDF format. [IEEE Computer]
One set of requirements, 80 implementations, coded by 74 different programmers in various languages, compared for properties: run time, memory use, source text length, comment density, program structure, reliability, effort needed.
Programming guru, Robert Martin, on languages of the coming decade. [ITworld.com]
Compares 4 languages: C, C++, C#, Java. Shows family genealogy. [Dr. Dobb's Journal]
Compares C# to Java, describes features and design trade-offs, places C# in context of broader Microsoft .Net strategy. Text, tables, code samples, links. By Mark Johnson. First article of 2-part series. [JavaWorld]
References, zipped Postscript, and inlined gifs.
Many comparisons between Tcl/Tk and other similar systems, most copied from comp.lang.tcl.
Yes-No table with definitions compares D, C, C++, C#, Java, on: GC, functions, arrays, OOP, performance, reliability, compatibility, conditional compiling. [Digital Mars]
Text compares differences of several main aspects.
Pro-Forth text explains why C is used more than Forth.
Pro-Forth question and answer text, some questions have several answers.
Published internal study, of Ericsson AXD 301 ATM switch project, using Erlang, C, C++, Java. Results: programmer productivity, code error rates, roughly proportional to source code size.
Multipage study compares: 4GL/5GL, 3GL (Ada 95, C, C++, COBOL, FORTRAN, Java, Smalltalk), 2GL (Assembly). Divides language (definition) from traits of products that implement and support it. Several sections, tables, appendixes.
Detailed discussion of the techniques used in Java and C++ to implement leak free and exception safe resource management. Covers memory management, finalizers, destructors and finally blocks with examples.
Growing table compares D, C, C++, C#, Java, Delphi, Python, Perl, Eiffel, Sather, Smalltalk, Lisp/CLOS, Ada. Many clarifying comments below. [Wiki4D, Open Content]
Brief text on comparisons of C, C++, Java, Lisp, Ron Garret / Erann Gat study, with conforming example program Lisp source code; very useful links.
Ron Garret / Erann Gat comparison, starts from 1999 Prechelt study results, adds many insights; as text, a few tables. [Intelligence]
Compares Erlang, GHC Haskell, Standard ML (Alice, MLton); text, tables, graphs.
Small-scale benchmark test run on 9 languages or variants: Java 1.3.1 and 1.4.2, C via gcc 3.3.1, Python 2.3.2 and via Psyco 1.1.1, 4 from Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003: Visual Basic/C#/C++/J#.
Comparison with text, code samples, many reader comments. Michael Tsai weblog.
Suite of common programming problems solved in Ada, C++, Erlang, Guile, Haskell, Java, Masd, merd, NASM, Objective Caml, Perl, Pliant, Python, Ruby, Tcl.
Compares the same program in Ada, C, Forth, FORTRAN, Java, Lisp, Perl, R, Ruby. Goal: support decisions in language choice for making compute-intensive Web programs. Text, table, code samples.
Table and text compares many features of some popular object-oriented languages: C++, C#, Eiffel, Java, Perl, Python, Ruby, Smalltalk, Visual Basic.
Briefly compares major Linux programming languages: C, C++, Fortran, Java, Lisp, Perl, PHP, Python, Tcl; by Risto S. Varanka.
Includes: diagram, history of languages; history of language concepts; syntax across languages; Scriptometer measures scripting ease of languages; mutability and sharing of various values in various languages.
Many links to comparisons involving Python.
Mini ray tracer benchmark written equivalently in C++, Java, SML, Objective Caml, Lisp, Scheme. Compares verbosity, performance; text, code samples, tables, image, graph. [Flying Frog Consultancy]
TOM attempts to address flaws in these languages: C++, Cecil, Common Lisp, Eiffel, Java, Objective-C, Smalltalk.
Compares Java and Smalltalk, in text and table. By Rodney Bates. [ACM Queue]
Common algorithms and other sample code in the languages: Bash and Bourne shells, C/C++, Java, MATLAB/Octave, Perl, Python, Ruby, Scheme.
Operator names and syntax elements in various programming languages.
Text compares Python and Eiffel, via Tim Peters' Zen rules.
Browse, explore some programming language syntax rules, see relations between rules, understand them via BNF (Backus-Naur Form notation) and syntactic diagrams: SQL, PL/SQL, SQL2, IDL; Ada 95, Java, Modula-2; Lazy, Lisp, M5.
Interview with Dennis Ritchie, Bjarne Stroustrup, James Gosling.
Five short essays compare C (and C++ by extension) to Fortran: Why C is Not a Good Numerical Language, Why C is Not a Good First Language, C's Poor Loop Constructs, C's Pointers and Optimisation, Optimisation through Directives.
Performance measurements and source code for multiple benchmark programs in different languages; with side-by-side comparisons between any two programming language implementations, and interactive boxplot chart comparisons between any 15.
Collection of self-reproducing programs: each outputs a copy of its own source code; about 60 languages.
Updated monthly. Shows language popularity via world-wide availability of skilled engineers, courses, 3rd party vendors. Calculated from search engines Google, MSN, Yahoo.
Brief comparison Curl with High Level assembler, BCX, Dark Basic, Mono (C#/.Net implementation), Python, Squeak, XBasic/XBlite. Curl applet examples.
Each entry includes history, description, code examples, and references.
Compares many languages in brief text, describes each by the problem it fixes. [Paul Graham]
Author explains what he considers wrong about Perl, presents Python as an alternative. Descriptions, code samples, links.
Brian Kernighan's comparison of Pascal and C
Brief text compares Assembly to C; lower to higher level language. ScienceProg.
Thanks to DMOZ, which built a great web directory for nearly two decades and freely shared it with the web. About us