Tritheism is the teaching that the Godhead is really three separate beings forming three separate gods. This contradicts the doctrine of the Trinity which states that there is but one God in three persons: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. The doctrine of the trinity is, by definition, monothestic. That is, it is a doctrine that affirms that there is only one God in all the universe.
A Wikipedia article with a section on the historical uses of the term in Christianity.
A Catholic Encyclopedia article on versions of Tritheism in early Christianity and in the Middle Ages.
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