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Number theory addresses problems about integer and rational numbers. It includes congruences, divisibility, primes, and Fermat's Last Theorem.
http://www.russinoff.com/papers/gauss.html
A paper by David M. Russinoff describing the use of the Boyer-Moore theorem prover in mechanically generating a proof of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity. PS/PDF.
http://www.hbmeyer.de/taupaeng.htm
Interactive (Javascript) expression of a number as a sum of two squares.
http://www.trillia.com/moser-number.html
Textbook covering following topics: compositions and partitions; arithmetic functions; distribution of primes; irrational numbers; congruences; diophantine equations; combinatorial number theory; and geometry of numbers.
http://math.nju.edu.cn/~zwsun/csz.htm
A unified approach to covering systems, restricted sumsets and zero-sum problems by Zhi-Wei Sun.
http://www.pballew.net/FermLit.html
With notes on Carmichael numbers and the life of R.D. Carmichael.
http://db.uwaterloo.ca/~alopez-o/math-faq/node21.html
Number Theory section of the sci.math FAQ list.
http://www.inwap.com/pdp10/hbaker/hakmem/cf.html
Some notes from the MIT collection. Includes Gosper's algorithms for CF arithmetic.
http://numbers.computation.free.fr/Constants/Miscellaneous/bernoulli.html
A web article with a brief history and account of their relationship with the Riemann zeta function and Fermat's Last Theorem (HTML/PS).
http://keithbriggs.info/klein-polyhedra.html
Examples and algorithms for computing Klein polyhedra, also known as Arnold sails or veils (voiles), by Keith Briggs.
http://www.cecm.sfu.ca/~mjm/Lehmer/lc.html
That the Mahler measure of an algebraic number is bounded away from 1. Pages by Michael Mossinghoff, UCLA.
http://www.lmfdb.org/
A handbook including tables, formulas, links, and references for L-functions and the underlying objects.
http://www.mathpages.com/home/inumber.htm
Articles by Kevin Brown on various topics in number theory.
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/topics/NumberTheory.html
Index to articles in Eric Weisstein's MathWorld in the area of number theory.
https://people.math.osu.edu/events/connes/Connes_course.html
Lecture notes by Alain Connes.
http://www.alpertron.com.ar/NUMBERT.HTM
Proofs along with equation solvers and graphical views written in Java.
http://www.numbertheory.org/ntw/
Things of interest to number theorists collected by Keith Matthews.
http://www.math.ucla.edu/~tao/254a.1.03w/
Lecture notes and resources on combinatorial number theory by Terence Tao.
http://www.gn-50uma.de/alula/essays/Moree/Moree.en.shtml
Products of rational functions of p over primes, computed by Gerhard Niklasch and Pieter Moree.
http://grail.cba.csuohio.edu/~somos/somospol.html
Related to Somos sequences and elliptic theta functions.
http://www.marmet.org/louis/sqfgap/index.html
Algorithm and source code for the calculation of square-free numbers and gaps.
http://www.cecm.sfu.ca/organics/papers/granville/index.html
Activated text by Andrew Granville.
http://oeis.org/
Given an integer sequence, find its name, and formula.
http://faculty.uml.edu/jpropp/somos.html
Web resources for information on Somos sequences and related topics such as elliptic divisibility sequences.
http://math.usask.ca/fvk/Valth.html
A forum for all mathematicians who work in valuation theory or apply valuation theoretical results in their own field of research.
http://www.sunsite.ubc.ca/DigitalMathArchive/Langlands/intro.html
Thesis, papers, manuscripts, letters and bibliography.
http://staff.spd.dcu.ie/johnbcos/transcendental_numbers.htm
Maple worksheets, lecture notes and links to other resources by John Cosgrove.
http://www.math.umn.edu/~garrett/m/v/
By Paul Garrett.
http://www.cecm.sfu.ca/~loki/Papers/Numbers/
By Peter Borwein and Loki Jörgenson. Recognising number patterns visually.
http://www.jasondoucette.com/worldrecords.html
The 196 Palindrome Quest and The Most Delayed Palindromic Number, by Jason Doucette.
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